is the Vietnamese name for the academic dress or ceremonial gown as worn in the
past by doctoral laureates upon passing the Imperial Examinations (fig.).
The accompanying hat is known as
mu tien si, literally a ‘doctoral hat’ (fig.).
These gowns of
civil mandarins are
on display at Hanoi's Temple of Literature (fig.).
The one above is that of a
first rank doctoral laureate,
whereas the one to the right is that of a sub-doctoral