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BURMESE SCRIPT 

       

 

ဗမာအက္ခရာ

Introduction

This section is intended as a reference and aid to help recognize and determine the transcription of the Burmese script used in the lexicon. Burmese script is easily recognizable by the overall presence of c-like semi-circular shapes, with numerous combinations of this shape and the opening of the c-shape possible in any direction. It is written from left to right using an abugida writing system in which each consonant has the inherent vowel a, which is however often reduced to e [ə] when another syllable follows in the same word. Akin to the Thai script, vowels are indicated by diacritics, which are placed above, below, before or after the consonant character. In addition, Burmese also uses stacked consonants, i.e. certain sequences of consonants that are written one atop the other. Burmese script requires no spaces between words.

 

Consonants

  • က ..... k
  •   ..... kh
  •   ..... g
  • ..... g
  •  ..... ng (ŋ/)
  •   ..... s
  • ..... sh
  •  ..... z
  •   ..... z
  • ဉ   ..... ny (ɲ)
  • ..... ny (ɲ)
  •   ..... t
  • ဌ  ..... ht
  •  ..... dt
  •  ..... d
  • ..... n
  • ..... t
  • ..... ht
  •  ..... d
  •  ..... d
  •   ..... n
  •   ..... p
  •  ..... ph
  •  ..... b
  • ..... b
  •  ..... m
  • ..... y
  •  ..... r/y
  • ..... l
  •   ..... l
  • ..... h
  •   ..... w
  • ..... th (θ)
  • ..... '/a (ʔ/glottal stop)

 

Additionally, the following letters are used as special consonants:

  • ျ    ..... y (used only with က ခ ဂ ဃ င ပ ဖ ဗ မ လ သ; e.g. ကျ .... ky)
  • ြ    ..... y/r (used mostly with just က ခ ဂ ဃ င ပ ဖ ဗ မ; e.g. ကြ .... ky/kr)
  •     ..... w (similar to ..... w,  but placed underneath)
  • ္လ ..... l
  • ရှ ( +  ှ) / လျှ ( +  ှ+ ) ..... sh

 

Click here to see a Word file with the consonants listed in groups of sound-alike letters

 

Click here to see a Word file with the consonants listed in groups of look-alike letters

 

Vowels 

  • open vowels, all with ' ()

  • ..... '/a
  • ာ့  ..... a
  • /   ..... aa (ah/ā)
  • ား/ါး ..... a
  • ဲ့ ..... e
  • ယ် ..... e
  • ..... e (ē)
  • ..... i
  • ိး ..... i
  • ..... ie (ih/ī)
  • ‌‌ာ့  ..... ao (o/aw)
  • ‌‌ာ် ..... ao (o/aw)
  • ‌‌/ ..... ao (o/aw)
  • ို့ ..... o
  • ို ..... oh
  • ို ..... o
  • ..... u (oe)
  • ..... uu (oeh/ū)
  • ူး ..... u (oe)
  • ‌‌ ..... e (ei/e)
  • ..... e (ei/ē)
  • ‌‌  .... e (ei/ē)

 

  • final n vowels, all with ' () and -n () or -in (င်)

  • န့် ..... an
  • န်  ..... an
  • န်း ..... an
  • င့်  ..... in
  • င်  ..... in
  • င် ..... in
  • ုန့် ..... on
  • ုန်  ..... on
  • ုန်း ..... on
  • ွန့် ..... oon (oen/ūn)
  • ွန်  ..... oon (oen/ūn)
  • ွန်း  ..... oon (oen/ūn)
  • ိုင့်  ..... ain
  • ိုင်  ..... ain
  • ိုင် ..... ain
  • န့်  .....een (ein/ēn)
  • န်  ..... een (ein/ēn)
  • န်း  ..... een (ein/ēn)
  • ‌‌င့် ..... aun (own)
  • ‌‌င် ..... aun (own)
  • ‌‌င်း ..... aun (own)

 

  • final stopped vowels (stopped tone only), all with ' ()

  • တ်/ပ် ..... a
  • က်  ..... e (dull)
  •   ..... i
  • ုတ်/ုပ်  ..... o
  • ွတ ..... u (oe)
  • ိုက ..... ai
  • တ်/ ..... ei
  • ‌‌က်   ..... au

 

 

Numerals

 

 ..... 1

..... 2

..... 3

..... 4

..... 5

..... 6

..... 7

..... 8

..... 9

..... 0

 

 

Peculiarities

  •     locative, to indicate place (in, at,... )
  •     full stop sentences ending with a verb
  • ၎င်း   idem ditto
  •      sentence connector to connect two trains of thought
  • ှ     makes sonorant consonant voiceless (h)