An automated loom for weaving, which was
invented in 1801 by Joseph Jacquard, a French weaver, whom had earlier already
designed a treadle operated loom. The loom works on punched cards and was the
first machine ever to do so. However, at the time the new technology was
perceived by many a French weaver as a threat to their livelihood and they tried
to destroy it by throwing their wooden shoes (called sabot) at the loom, an
incident that stands at the origin of the word sabotage. Today, the Jacquard
Loom is still used in the Far East.
nephrite. A general name for greenish grey semiprecious or precious stone from which artifacts and jewels are cut.
Several minerals qualify, especially
malachite (fig.), chloromelanite and nephrite, with jadeite
(fig.) being the most valuable. It is believed to have the power to bring good luck and protection. The best quality is found in
Burma and in popular speech jade is sometimes called
Considered imperishable, the Chinese used jade tablets as
steles, to record glorious and historical events, and
even made complete burial suits from jade plaques, threaded together with wire
through small holes drilled at the corners of each plaque (fig.).
high officials and members of certain dynasties were buried with a coin-shaped
jade tablet known as
placed near the stomach or chest, and sometimes with a piece of jade in their mouth, as jade is associated with immortality and is believed to have
the power to purify. This practice is
somewhat reminiscent of the Thai concept of
ngeun pahk phi. Today, small circular jade tablets are popular
pendants (fig.). In Thai,
jade is called yok
and in Chinese
jade sand painting and
Yu Nu and
Golden Boy and Jade Girl.
several minerals that qualify as
It is the most precious and sought after kind of jade in
that imports it, mainly from
jade sand painting
Name for a type of Chinese modern objet
d'art, which is created by affixing coloured and finely granulated
to the surface of paper in an
ceremonial tablet made of
Jade tablets are believed to
have the power to
purify the environment and were used
and as writing tablets in ancient Chinese imperial court. In art, they are generally depicted as a diamond-shaped flat slabs (fig.),
and are often carried in pair. In certain dynasties, a similar
writing tablet allowed the holder free access into throne
room of the
Jade Emperor. In
iconography, it is hence an
as well as of
(fig.), one of the
Eight Immortals (fig.).
A jade tablet was also carried by
Confucius. In ancient
high officials and members of certain dynasties were sometimes buried with a
jade tablet, known as
and a piece of jade was sometimes placed in the mouth. Today, small circular jade tablets are commonly found popular
Also referred to as
a Mandarin's honorific tablet
Chinese known as yu gui (玉圭). See also
ngeun pahk phi.
‘Fasting’. Term usually referring to the food eaten by the Chinese during their Lent or time of fasting, traditionally vegetarian. Also
je. See also
thetsakaan kin jae.
‘Mother of the world’. Title given to
Parvati, the consort to
Her name is also pronounced Jaga-ambi (जगअम्बा),
in Hindi she is called Jagadamba (जगदंबे),
and she is sometimes referred
to as Jagamata.
‘Mother of the
world’. One of the kind forms of Devi, the consort to
Shiva. See also
‘Lord of the world’. A name for
Thai name for
Nickname for the Indian river
A sage who, during his devotions, was once disturbed by the noise of the
Ganges river and therefore drank its waters. He later regretted this and allowed the river to flow out from his ear. Thus, the Ganges got its nickname
Thai. ‘Heart’. The Thai word jai is often used as a compound with other words to form powerful
and complex metaphors or idioms. The Thai language has several hundreds
expressions using the word jai, often to describe feelings and emotions. Besides
‘heart’ the word jai might also be translated as ‘middle’, ‘centre’, ‘essence’,
‘mind’ or ‘spirit’. Although there is some controversy about the origin of the
shape of a heart (©),
some believe it derives from the
yoni, a Hindu object of veneration
representing the female genital organ (fig.).
More likely, the heart-symbol may have originated from the (negative) space seen
in between the bowed necks of two courting swans (fig.), or from the shape formed by
the back and wings of a dove, a traditional symbol of peace associated with
Aphrodite, the ancient Greek goddess of love.
See also POSTAGE STAMP (1)
Philosophical sect founded in North India by the venerated ascetic
Vardhamana who became known as
‘great hero’. The name comes from
jina (jaina), meaning
‘victory’, i.e. victory over the passions
and the self. The
Jains found their entire system of ethics on
ahimsa, a doctrine based on the non-harming of all living things. As in
Hinduism, a belief in
karma is adhered to, and like
Buddhism, it originated in opposition to the
Brahman principles of the sixth century BC, but never spread beyond India,
in part due to the fact that its followers only walk on foot and refuse to take
any means of transportation, as that may harm or even kill another living being. The two main sects are
Digambara and Svetambara. See also
1. Follower of Jainism.
2. Adjective meaning ‘of Jain’ or ‘of Jainism’.
Thai. A stringed, lute-like instrument with a long neck and a pear-shaped body, roughly resembling an Indian sitar, but smaller in size. It is played whilst seated on the floor and by way of strumming (fig.).
Some are elaborately decorated (fig.). See also
Sanskrit for ‘water’. The name of
is derived from it.
Also transcribed chala and sometimes gala, but pronounced with ‘j’ or ‘ch’.
term from the Indo-Aryan language Gujarati, used for a lattice or perforated pattern on a screen or window, as found in Indian buildings.
Also transcribed jaali.
1. Thai. Hair of a
or a yak's tail, used in various forms as a symbol of royalty or kingship, and as the attribute of several gods in
and often pronounced jamjurih (jamjuree). See also
2. Thai name
for a large tree with the botanical
saman, but which is often placed
in the genus Albizia, where it is more specifically known as Albizia saman or
In English, it is
called Rain Tree, East Indian Walnut, or Monkey Pod, and in
Thai, it is also known by
several other, local names, such as kahm krahm (¡éÒÁ¡ÃÒÁ),
used in Central Thailand; kahm
which means ‘lobster's claws’ or ‘nippers’
and is used
which means ‘crab's claws’
and is used
Chao Phraya River
and Bangkok; cham
a name used in the North, besides lang (ÅÑ§),
sarasah (ÊÒÃÊÒ) and samsah (ÊÓÊÒ); seku (àÊè¤Øè) and sedu (àÊè´Ùè), two names
used by the
Mae Hong Son;
and tuttoo (µØê´µÙè), the name used in the region of
It belongs to the family Fabaceae and
produces white and pink flowers
that grow on top of the branches, similar to those of the
shrub in the same family and with the same Thai name (fig.).
The Rain Tree is the mascot of the
Chulalongkorn University, because the king, to whom this university was
named, was born on a Tuesday, the day that represents pink in the
sih prajam wan-system.
Often pronounced jamjurih (jamjuree) and to differentiate from the shrub
usually the prefix
(µé¹) is added.
3. Thai name
shrub in the family Fabaceae and with
the botanical name
surinamensis. It is known in English
Pink Tassel-flower, due to its tassel-like
on top of its branches, that are white
with pink. However,
jamajurih is also used for the Rain Tree
a large tree that belongs to the same family and
produces similar white and pink flowers. Thus,
to differentiate between the shrub and the tree, the prefix phreuk (¾Ä¡Éì) is
usually added, whilst for the tree, the prefix
(µé¹) is used. Also pronounced jamjurih
Hindi name for wealth gods in
Jambu Fruit Dove
Common designation for a colourful
fruit-dove with the binomial name Ptilinopus jambu. It is a resident breeder in
southern Thailand, Malaysia, Brunei and the Indonesian islands of Kalimantan,
Sumatra and Java. The Jambu Fruit Dove is about 26 to 27 centimeters tall and
weighs about 42 grams. It is a plump, small-headed bird, with very distinctive
colouring (fig.), including a white eye ring, orange bill and red legs. The adult male
has a crimson face, unmarked green upperparts and white underparts, with a pink
patch on the breast and a brown undertail. The female has a dull greyish purple
face and green underparts with a paler vent and cinnamon undertail. The immature
Jambu Fruit Dove resembles the female, but has a brownish green face. Also
spelled Jambu Fruit-dove and in Thai known as
nok plao nah daeng.
Thai-Pali name for an Indian mythological emperor, who was too proud to listen to the words of the
Buddha. The Buddha then changed himself into a great and mighty emperor and invited Jambupati to visit him
(fig.). This event changed Jambupati
and he became perceptive to the teachings of the Buddha. This story is
unknown in India and appears only in Southeast Asian literature on the Buddha's legendary life.
Also pronounced Chomphupadih. See also
Jambupati Buddha image.
Jambupati Buddha image
iconographical style of
crowned Buddha images from
Burma, founded on the story of
name has become attached to these typical
Buddha images. The legend tells how the
changed himself into a great and mighty emperor,
set in an unparalleled palace (fig.), and then had Jambupati brought before him.
Witnessing the Buddha in all his majesty, Jambupati accepted the
dharma and became a
This story, while unknown in India, seems to have been very popular in Burma, as
the number of
Buddha images illustrating it, is significant.
typically wear a
jewel known as
i.e. a set of chains that is worn over the
shoulders and fastened at the chest with several ornamental plaques, in order to
royal rank (fig.). Occasionally, Jambupati Buddha images are found in Thailand (fig.).
1. Thai. Cone-shaped
basket on a circa 1.2
meter long wooden stick, used as a holder, especially for water pots and oil
lamps (fig.), but also as garden flowerpots (fig.) and nests for laying hen, in order to
easily collect their eggs. These baskets exists in different sizes, depending on
what they are used for. Also transcribed jampa, champa or champah.
Thai. Name for the
champak, a large evergreen tree with the scientific name Michelia champaca. It
is native to South and Southeast Asia, and used for its timber. It has very
fragrant yellow or white flowers, and seeds that are highly attractive to birds,
hence a stylized champak flower became the logo of Thai Airways International (fig.).
They are also used in
flower garlands called
and stringed flower arrangements known as
In Burmese mythology, the
Min Mahagiri (fig.)
−or, according to another report,
Shwe Nabay (fig.)−
are believed to have once resided in this tree, and its flowers are today
still offered to them
by pilgrims at Mount Popa (fig.). Also transcribed jampa, champa or champah, and in Thai also spelled ¨ÑÁ»Ò.
jam sihn (จำศีล)
Thai. To keep the Buddhist precepts regularly; to sit still and pray. See also
Name of a river in North India,
i.e. the largest tributary of the
Ganges and personified as a Hindu goddess riding a
Mahal is located on its
banks. Also transcribed Yamuna.
Sita in the Indian
Hindi name for
both a sacred cord and a ceremony,
which are known in
‘thigh’ or ‘pillar’, and related to the word (जङ्घा),
meaning ‘leg’. Yet, as an architectural term, it is also used to refer to
the posts of a veranda, as well as to a sculpture in the form of a broad figurative band, found in the middle on an exterior temple wall.
Thai. The food or meal of a monk.
jang jihn (¨Ñë§¨Õ¹)
Thai. Name for
the Slender Lady Palm, a plant also known by the name Reed Rhapis. Rhapis is
Greek meaning ‘needle’ and refers to the up to 40 centimeters long, needle-like
leaves. This species of palm, native to Southern
China and Northern Thailand,
may in Thailand be called jang chiang mai. It can grow up to 5 meters high and
is often seen as ornamental plant.
Thai. ‘Province’. Each jangwat is named after the provincial capital, usually the
administrative and most important city in the province and in popular speech
customarily called amphur
Each jangwat is divided into districts called
Bangkok where besides 5 amphur there are also 45 zones called
khet- sometimes with smaller sub-districts called
These districts are further separated into rural sub-districts which are
administered by a
kamnan and called
consist of several smaller villages called
literally a group of houses. Thailand has a total of 76
provinces (fig.), 795 amphur,
king amphur, 7,255 tambon and
The term jangwat was
first used in 1907 for the provinces in the
and in 1916 it became in general use.
Thai name for the
Diospyros decandra, a deciduous tree with light green foliage.
‘Repeating’ or ‘whispering’. The repetitive whispering of a
mantra or prayer whilst meditating.
Japanese Emperor Oak
for a species of oak native to Japan, Korea and
China, with the botanical
designation Quercus dentata and also commonly called
Daimyo Oak. It grows up to 25 meters tall, though it usually grows smaller in
cultivation. Its leaves have a
shallowly lobed margin and are
reminiscent in shape to those of the English Oak. The Japanese Emperor Oak
clusters, known as catkins, and its acorns –which sit in broad, bristly cups–
are mature by September.
for a small deciduous tree, with the botanical name Acer palmatum, and native to
certain parts of eastern Asia, including Japan, Korea, Mongolia and
It grows to a height of about 10 meters and occasionally taller, and is highly
sought after for ornamental use. Its attractive leaves (fig.) resemble those of hemp (fig.).
Common name for a species of passerine bird
in the Turdidae family, with the scientific designation Turdus cardis. It is
found in parts of East and Southeast Asia, including in Japan, Korea, China,
Taiwan, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam. Adult males are black above and white with
black spots bellow. The bill and legs are yellowish orange. Adult females are
similar but above more greyish brown, rather than black, and with some orangey
buff colouring on the flanks. Its natural habitat consists of temperate forests.
Japanese Tiger Prawn
Common name of a species of prawn, that
occurs naturally in warm currents of bays and seas of the Indo-West Pacific.
Name of a 11
to 12 centimeters small passerine bird with the scientific name Zosterops
japonica, and found in northern India (fig.), eastern
China, Taiwan, Japan and the Philippines, and
which winter in Southeast Asia, including Hainan Island. It has an olive green
back, scapulars, rump, upper tail coverts and head, except for the chin and
throat, which are yellowish (fig.). Its underparts are
dull white, becoming dusky on the sides and flanks.
It has a
front of the
that form a
half of the
its legs and
dark grey (fig.).
It is very similar to the
Oriental White-eye (fig.),
but is darker above, has no ventral stripe and has a defined yellow loral band.
It feeds on insects, fruit and nectar. Extraordinary, Japanese white-eyes on the
Japanese island of Hahajima are known to feed on tiny land snails, of which
about 15% are able to survive digestion intact and are found alive in the birds'
droppings, a key factor in how this species of snail spreads. This species of
snail is scientifically known as Tornatellides boeningi, but has been given the
epithet Japanese Flying Snails, comically with boeningi being quite reminiscent
of the name Boeing. In Thai, the Japanese White-eye is named
nok waen tah khao lang
See also WILDLIFE PICTURES.
‘Old age’. The huntsman who unwittingly killed
Another spelling for
word for praphenih,
meaning ‘convention’, ‘custom’ or ‘tradition’, as used in
hihd sip song. Also transcribed jareed.
Name for a
Thai patented, long-grain variety of fragrant
rice, with a
nutty aroma and a subtle
flavour, and which grains slightly cling when cooked.
It is also known as Thai fragrant rice and in Thai as
There are two strains, i.e.
on which later improvements resulted in a newer strain, officially known as go
ko 15 (¡¢ ñõ). Both strains are officially recognized as
Sanskrit. ‘Matted hair’. Matted chignon or braids of entangled hair
(fig.), as worn by
rishi, ascetics and
sadhu. It is a sign of either mourning or of an indifference towards worldly matters.
In Hindu iconography and art, certain deities are depicted with a ‘crown’ (mukuta)
of ‘matted hair’ (jata),
(fig.). Sometimes translated as dreadlocks.
Pali word for the Thai term
refers to each and all of the in total 550 incarnations that every soul has to take before one can be born as a
buddha. Generally it stands for the 547
former life stories of the
Buddha, but in
Burma three extra lives were added for reasons of symmetry in mural paining. In Thai tradition the ten last incarnations of the
who became the Buddha, prior to his final birth as prince
Siddhartha, are the most important and are called
Totsachat. They are often depicted in statues and murals throughout Thailand.
One style of
from Burma depicts the Buddha completely covered with embossed imprints of
countless smaller Buddha images (fig.), which
are believed to represent his previous incarnations.
Sanskrit. ‘Crown of matted hair’. The matted and braided chignon of hair worn by
Shiva as an ascetic. Often depicted as an elaborate headdress adorned with his
The term derives from the words
Thai. Derivative name of
Kadtukam, one of two guardian gods of the
holy relics of the Buddha. See also
Name of a large, very popular
in the shape of a medallion, about 6 millimeters thick and
a diameter of around 5.4 centimeters. The original
Jatukam-Ramathep amulets were introduced in the 1980's by Khun Phantharak
Rajadej, a police chief from
Nakhon Sri Thammarat,
to raise funds for the construction of a
(city pillar). The amulet was then priced
at 49 baht. The amulets became very popular when the Police Major General died
at the age of 103 (some say 108) on 5 September 2006, just days before the coup
d'état that ousted prime minister Thaksin Shinawat, and now,
many are sold for more than 100,000 baht each. Believers wear the amulet around the neck as a
as it is
believed to have magical powers and protect its
front side of the
amulet shows the god
Tao Ramathep (fig.)
seated with the right knee uplifted in a casual yoga position and
surrounded by the animals of the
zodiac, a reference to the coat of arms
of Nakhon Sri
and by eight figures of the demon-god
back side shows a relief with some
that have an
Ramathep is, together with Tao Kadtukam (Kattukam), the
guardian god of the holy relics of the Buddha. Their statues are carved onto the
Wat Mahathat Wora Maha Wihaan
The name of Tao Kadtukam was over time understood to be Jatukam,
hence its present designation. Buddhists today have become obsessed with this alleged
magic amulet, despite warnings that the circular icon is only a secular crutch, corrupting both religion and society. Due to its magical
claims and a highly inflated resale value the amulet has caused an out-of-control
Thieves have broken into shops
and infiltrated temples to steal it. Then, the
Supreme Patriarch of
allowed materials from his temple, such as ash from incense and powder from
bricks, to be made into the controversial amulets and when in April 2007 a fresh batch of
the lucrative charm went on sale in southern Thailand, a crowd of thousands waiting to
buy coupons they could exchange for the amulets erupted into a
stampede, trampling a woman to death and injuring
many others. A few weeks later, the Supreme Patriarch stopped providing
materials for the amulets. The
first generation of amulets issued in 1987 AD, is also referred to as Phra Phong
Suriyan-Jantrah (¾ÃÐ¼§ÊØÃÔÂÑ¹-¨Ñ¹·ÃÒ). See also
Tao Ramathep and
1. Thai-Pali. ‘Four keepers of the world’. The four guardians protecting the world by presiding over the four points of the compass. In Sanskrit they are called
lokapalas and may vary in
number, and in Burmese known as
2. Thai-Pali. ‘Four keepers of the world’. The chief
thevada in the fourth grade heaven with four faces presiding over the four points of the compass. Compare with
Phra Phrom Sih Nah.
Thai-Pali. ‘Four porticos’. An architectural style in which a building has four gable ends or four entrances, sometimes with each one pointed to a direction of the compass, like the
Wat Phumin in
Thai-Pali. ‘Four-faced one’. A name of
Brahma. See also
Phra Phrom Sih Nah.
Thai-Pali. ‘Four directions’. An
iconographical term used to
indicate a style in which an edifice or image is built with four sides, each
side facing one of the four directions of the compass, such as
statues of the
Satu Lokapala (fig.),
i.e. the four guardians that protect
the world by presiding over the four points of the compass,
as well as some
Buddha images of
Wat Phumin in
those of the
Kyaikpun Pagoda (fig.)
Mon State, as well as
those of the Thambula Temple (fig.)
Ananda Phaya (fig.),
Thai-Pali. ‘Four arms of national defense’. The four arms of an ancient army (kong thap), namely the
elephants, chariots, cavalry and infantry.
Javanese Cownose Ray
for a type of ray fish, with the scientifc designation Rhinoptera javanica. It
is easily recognized by its odd-looking head, which features a double-lobed
snout and indented forehead. Like most rays, it has a flattened, somewhat
kite-shaped body, which is dark above and white below.
It has a long, thin, whip-like tail, which is
distinctly demarcated from the body and armed with one or more stings. This
species is also known as the Flapnose Ray, and in Thai as Yihson (ÂÕèÊ¹) or pla
kra-ben jamuk hua (»ÅÒ¡ÃÐàº¹¨ÁÙ¡ÇÑÇ), though the latter name is also used for
the Rough Cownose Ray (Rhinoptera adspersa).
A large monument with
ray fish is erected in a pool at the entrance of the Bang Saen Aquarium
Bang Saen Beach
for a species of kingfisher in the Halcyonidae family, with the scientific name
Halcyon cyanoventris, and endemic to Indonesia. It
has a dark brown, almost black head, a dark blue body and pale blue wings, with
black shoulders. Its bill and legs are reddish-orange. Its natural habitat consists of open spaces
near to clean fresh water, in subtropical or tropical regions. Although it is a
quieter bird than the
(fig.), it does
posses a striking call, which can be heard sometimes.
In Thai, this bird is known as
chawah (¹¡¡ÃÐàµç¹ªÇÒ) or nok ka-ten chawah (¹¡¡Ðàµç¹ªÇÒ).
Javan Pond Heron
Common designation for a species of wading bird,
with the scientific name Ardeola speciosa. It is about 45 cm tall, and in the
breeding season with a buffish head and neck, a
breast, a slaty mantle and scapulars, and a white belly and vent. In addition,
it has a greyish-yellow bill with a black tip, yellow eyes and yellow legs. With
juveniles, as well as with adults outside the mating season, the bill is more greysih-yellow with a black tip, and the birds have a brown mantle and
scapulars, whilst the head, neck and breast are brown, streaked with white. This
non-breeding plumage is very similar to that of the
Chinese Pond Heron
and that of the Indian Pond Heron, and is virtually indistinguishable in the
field, apart from the fact that in flight its wings are almost completely white,
whereas that of the Chinese Pond Heron has obvious dusky tips
Also called Javanese Pond Heron and in Thai known as
nok yahng krok pan chawa.
for the Rhinoceros sondaicus, i.e. the Sunda Rhinoceros, which is also known as
the Lesser One-horned Rhinoceros, and in Thai as raed chawa (áÃ´ªÇÒ), ra-mahd (ÃÐÁÒ´)
and raed sundah (áÃ´«Ø¹´Ò). Once the most widespread of Asian rhinoceroses,
ranging from the islands of Indonesia, throughout Southeast Asia, into China and
India, the Javan Rhinoceros is now critically endangered, with only two known
populations in the wild, and none in zoos, making it one of the rarest large
mammals on the planet. Their decline is attributed to loss of habitat due to
war, and poaching. It is closely related and very similar
Indian Rhinoceros (fig.),
but with a smaller horn, which is
rarely bigger than 15 centimeters. In 1973, the Thai
Post issued a series of postage stamps with endangered and rare wild animals,
including one with the depiction of the Javan Rhinoceroses (fig.).
Java Rice Sparrow
for a species of passerine bird in the family Estrildidae, and with the
scientific name Padda oryzivora. It is also commonly known as Java Finch, Java
Rice Bird and Java Sparrow, and in Thai as
nok krajok chawah. Adults are about 16
centimeters tall and are overall grey, with a pinkish-buff belly, a black head
and white cheeks, a pinkish-red eye-ring and bill, and pink feet and legs. The
Java Rice Sparrow originates from Indonesia, but has been since long been a
popular cage bird throughout Asia, and consequently occurs as a feral species in
many other countries. Since it feeds mainly on grain and seeds, it often occurs
rice-producing areas, where it may become an agricultural pest.
Indian architectural term, also used in
Islamic architecture, to indicate the duplication of buildings, which give symmetry
by creating a mirror image.
Southern Thai term for
Thai. An image of the household god put up in a spirit house called
sahn phra phum.
Sometimes also called
1. Sanskrit-Khmer term for ‘victory’, in
Thai known as
a word which in compounds is often pronounced chaiya, as in
it also is the name of a prayer for victory or prosperity.
jaya stambha (जया स्तम्भ)
Sanskrit for ‘victory column’, ‘victory pillar’,
or ‘victory tower’,
such as the 22 meter high Jain tower in het Chittorgarh Fort in Rajasthan, India.
Also called Vichaya Stambha (विजय स्तम्भ).
Sanskrit-Khmer. Name chosen by several
rulers in the pre- and
to begin with Jayavarman I
657, originally a king of
who is considered by some to be the first king of the Khmer Empire as it evolved
out of the
kingdom, and ending in 1295 when Jayavarman
VIII abdicated. The name is a compound of the words
Name for a
kind of share taxi in the Philippines, comparable to the Thai
songthaew. They were originally
built from US military jeeps that were discarded after World War II, hence their
name which etymologically is believed to be a portmanteau of ‘jeep’ and ‘jitney’, the latter being an American term for a vehicle that operates
somewhere between a private taxi and a conventional bus. Filipino Jeepneys are
usually brightly decorated with vibrant colours and lots of chrome.
Common name of a diurnal bird of prey, with the scientific
designation Aviceda jerdoni.
of a Dutch trader who lived in ancient
nine years and was director of the
Dutch East India Company
from 1638 to 1642. Prior to that,
time of the
Incident which he described in detail in his diary, he was the
acting director of the Dutch trade post in
Siam, under Joost Schouten, who was
however often absent for long periods during overseas journeys. Although he was
not personally involved in this incident he was later, when he was governor of
Batavia, convicted of other offences, i.e. massive corruption and improper
private transactions. He was born and died in Schiedam, in the Netherlands, and
lived from 1602 to 1663.
Name of the central figure of
is revered by most Christians as the Son and incarnation of God and part of the
Trinity, that is One Being, who exists as three Persons, to be precise God the
Father, God the Son and God the Holy Spirit. In other words, whilst being fully
Human, Jesus is also fully God, as well as Spirit, a concept reminiscent to the
Hinduism. The name Jesus derives
from the Greek Iesous (Ἰησοῦς), a Hellenisation of the Hebrew-Aramaic names
Yeshua (ישוע) and Yehoshua (יהושע),
both meaning ‘Yahweh
rescues’, whereas Christ is a title that
derives from the Greek word Christos (Χριστός), meaning the
‘Anointed One’, which corresponds to the Hebrew-Aramaic word Messiah (משיחא). He is also known
as Jesus of Nazareth, after his childhood home town. Judaism rejects the claim
that Jesus is the Messiah and incarnate God, and
regards Him as a prophet. The icon of Christianity early on
fish, usually referred to as the
Ichtus symbol, which besides its reference to Jesus’ fisherman disciples, also
is a Greek acronym for Iesous Khristos Theou Huios Soter (Ἰησοῦς Χριστός θεοῦ
Υἱός Σωτήρ), meaning ‘Jesus Christ, Son of God, Saviour’
Jesus of Nazareth
Jet Fighters Monument
Name of a military monument at the Royal
Thai Air Force Academy, which is located opposite of the RTAF Headquarters in Bangkok.
It features four types of genuine jet fighter aircraft, that are erected as if
flying in formation, taking-off with a near-vertical angle. The decommissioned
aircraft are an F-16A Fighting Falcon (fig.),
Freedom Fighter (fig.),
a Northrop F-5B
Freedom Fighter (fig.),
a North American F-86 Sabre
The monument was erected in 2012, the
year in which Thailand
Anniversary of the
Founding Fathers of the Royal Thai
Air Force (fig.).
In Thai, the Jet Fighters Monument is known as
Anusawarih Kreuang Bin Rob.
for a species of insect in the family Scutelleridae. Jewel Bugs get their name
from their often brilliant colouration, though they are also commonly known as
Shield-backed Bugs, a name that derives from the enlargement of the last section
of their thorax into a continuous shield over the abdomen and wings, a
characteristic that oftentimes leads to misidentification, assuming them to be
beetles rather than bugs. Closely related to stink bugs, they are also able to
produce an offensive odour when disturbed. Due to this,
they are in Thai called malaeng tod (áÁÅ§µ´), literally ‘farting
bugs’, a term also used for bombardier beetles
Jewel of the Orient
A designation used for the
Siamese Fighting Fish.
Indian architectural term for a protecting canopy or baldachin over a window or doorway.
It is derived from the Hindi word jhilamilee (झिलमिल),
meaning ‘blind’, ‘sun blind’ or ‘shutter’.
1. Chinese name for a type of a lance with two points, used as
a martial weapon. It typically has either one or two sickle-shaped knives (fig.), akin
to those with the hook sword or
qian kun ri yue dao (fig.),
which is attached either underneath its
or on both sides thereof. As a
long weapon, it is sometimes
found in Chinese temples and shrines,
as part of the traditional long weapons
to symbolically fight off all evil
2. Chinese name for a kind of a spear or lance in combination
i.e. a ‘dagger-ax’ (fig.).
Jiang Shen Qiu (健身球)
‘Healty body balls’.
Chinese Massage Balls.
jian zhi (剪纸)
Chinese. ‘Paper cutting’. Name for the Chinese folk
art of clipping paper cutouts with sharp, pointed scissors (fig.),
or sometimes knives. The art first occurred in the Eastern Han Dynasty, when it
was invented by a eunuch named Cai Lun (T'sai Lun), who is also accredited for
improving the quality of paper used in his days, by adding essential new
materials into its composition, as well as inventing a new paper making process.
Between the 7th and 13th centuries, the art of paper cutting became popular,
especially during holiday festivals, and later spread to the rest of the world
and new skills were developed. In the eighties, the art knew a revival,
resulting in the emergence of several skilled artists, such as highly acclaimed
Ji Jian Ming (计建明). Nowadays, cutouts are widely used to decorate the interiors
of homes, as well as doors and windows. Besides this, they are also used as
patterns, especially in the making of
cutouts are usually red, the colour believed to bring good luck, or otherwise
blue. Jiang zhi are usually made in mass, by putting several layers of paper
jian zi (毽子)
Chinese name for
ji dao (戟刀)
Chinese. ‘Sword lance’. Another name for
Chinese. ‘Precepts scars’. Name of
nine rounded scars or marks, i.e. three rows of three
dots, that are burned onto the head of
The outer robe of a Buddhist priest, also called
traijiewon. See also
Chinese. ‘Honourable Ji’ or
‘Master Ji’. Name of a Buddhist
lived from 1130 to 1207 AD in the region of Hangzhou.
Although he had a kindhearted and obliging
he was expelled from his monastery
for braking the rules of the
eating meat and drinking wine. However,
many who observed his unconventional, yet kind and compassionate nature, began
to believe that he was an
of Xianglong, the Taming
one of the eighteen legendary
He is posthumously
worshipped as a minor
deity and is usually depicted in
monastic robes with a
calabash and a leaf-shaped fan which is believed to be magical. Sometimes
transcribed Chi Kong or Chi Kung and also known by the names Ji Gong Huo Fo, ‘Honourable Ji,
the Living Buddha’; Dao Ji Chan Shi, ‘Taoist Ji, the Meditation Master’ or ‘Taoist Ji, the
Buddhist Master; Li Xiu Yuan, ‘Li, the First
Decorated’; Hu Yin, ‘Recluse of the Lake’; and Fang Yuan, ‘Square Circle’.
jihn sae (จีนแส)
Thai term for a Chinese sage.
Jiao Gui (鸡脚鬼)
Feet Ghost’. A
with a black complexion and bulging eyes, who is often portrayed with a long
protruding tongue and holding a metal chain. He has chicken-like feet (fig.)
spores, hence the origin of his name.
He is one of the four guardians at the gate of Tian Zi Dian (天子殿), i.e. the
of the Son of Heaven’,
usually referred to in English as the
Diyu, the Taoist
Hell, the other three guardians being the
Ying Jiang (fig.),
and the White
Bai Wu Chang (fig.).
Besides this, Ji Jiao Gui and
Bai Wu Chang also appear together
Gui Men Guan,
Gate of Hell (fig.).
His task is to
capture the wicked
and bring them away for punishment. Hence, his role is reminiscent to that of
Hei Wu Chang (fig.),
holds a metal chain to bind the
souls of the wicked dead.
Designer and textile trader who gave hand-woven Thai
Mai Thai worldwide recognition. Born in 1906 in Greenville, U.S.A., he disappeared mysteriously on 27 March 1967 during a walk in the Cameron Highlands in Malaysia. He settled in Thailand after WW II, where he was a volunteer with the American troops who were engaged in the reconstruction of Thailand and its reinstatement of independence and freedom. A former architect he built a home consisting of six
teakwood buildings in traditional Thai style on the bank of a canal in Bangkok, today known as
Jim Thompson's House.
He was nicknamed the ‘Silk King’.
Jim Thompson's House
House on the bank of a city canal in Bangkok, made from
teakwood consisting of six buildings in traditional Thai style (fig.). It was reconstructed by the American architect and King of Thai Silk
Jim Thompson from existing houses and according to the authentic practice and customs of early constructors, including all prevailing and traditional religious rituals. Most houses were at least 200 years old and were dismantled upcountry and subsequently moved to their present location, sometimes from as far as
Ayutthaya. The house also has a beautiful garden and an extensive collection of
and other artifacts. In Thai
Ban Jim Thompsan.
Sanskrit. ‘Conqueror’ or ‘victorious one’.
Pronunciation jaina, and sometimes also transliterated likewise. In
Buddhism the term indicates the historical
Buddha or the five transcendental
buddhas of the
Mahayana sect, in which each jina is assigned to a specific location in Buddhist cosmology and is positioned accordingly on a
Jainism known as a
Pronounced jaina. See also
jing joh nahm (¨Ô§â¨éé¹éÓ, ¨Ôé§â¨é¹éÓ)
Thai. ‘Water kangaroo’. Common name for the
water strider, an insect that in Thailand usually belongs to the family Gerridae and
which is also known as water skater, water skimmer, water skipper, etc.
It has a dark brown to black body, which is short compared to its long legs, and
usually corn-shaped. It
is a predatory insect that has the ability to walk on the water surface of slow
streams and quiet waters, such as
paddies. It is able to do this due to surface tension and a special structure of
tiny hairs on its legs, that are known as setae and similar to those on the feet
(gecko). It feeds on aquatic insects, including mosquito larvae that rise to the
surface or insects that fall into the water. It can move very quickly, skating
on the water surface with speeds of up to 1.5 meters per second. The genera that
occur in Thailand include the Aquarius adelaidis (Gerris adelaidis),
Cylindrostethus costalis (Humpbacked Skater), Limnometra matsudai (White-lined
Pond Skater), Metrocoris nigrofascioides (Banded Dwarf Skater), etc.
Thai name for a small,
nocturnal household lizard in the family of Gekkonidae. In Thailand, two members of this family are commonly seen,
i.e. the jingjok
and the larger
tukkae, which is known by the scientific name
Gekko gecko. Of the Jingjok,
there are several species, including the Spiny-tailed House Gecko (Hemidactylus frenatus
Flat-tailed Gecko (Cosymbotus platyurus
the Spotted House Gecko (Gekko monarchus), the Four-clawed Gecko (Gehyra
mutilata), etc. An adult jingjok measures about ten centimeters, from proboscis to tail tip. They typically clamber about on walls, window panes and ceilings. To defy gravity geckos have extraordinarily feet which are covered with microscopically tiny hair-like tubular structures called
‘setae’ which have cup-like tips or pads
(fig.) and which are similar to those on the legs of the
jing joh nahm
(water skater). It enables the gecko to effortlessly stick to almost any surface, even upside down on ceilings. Whilst walking the
‘setae’ spread out and the pads on their tips create enough surface intermolecular attraction between the
‘setae’ and the surface to support the gecko's weight. To climb rougher
surfaces, these small geckos also posses claws (fig.). When hunting they can go from frozen immobility to a lightning strike to snatch their prey, which consists of insects and can include butterflies and moths, sometimes the size their own.
To attract a mate they make clicking noises and slap their tails against the
surface they are on. Then, they cautiously approach each other and will start to
mate (fig.). Being a reptile the jingjok lies small round
eggs which are usually left in dark holes or niches, waiting to hatch out.
A jingjok has the ability to detach its tail to avoid capture by predators (fig.),
but over time it will regenerate to its original shape. It is believed by many Thais that if a jingjok has a forked tail it will bring
good luck to those seeing it, hence
of forked-tailed geckos have hit the market
jing lehn (¨Ôé§àËÅ¹)
name for any species of skink (fig.), a lizard-like reptile, but usually without a
pronounced neck and with relatively small or reduced legs, or even with no legs at
all, depending on the genus. They belong to the family of Scincidae, of which
its English name is derived, and are found in a variety of habitats worldwide.
Southeast Asian species found also in
include the Olive Tree Skink (Dasia olivacea); the Mangrove Skink
(Emoia atrocostata), of which
there are several kinds; the Yellow Striped Tree Skink (Lipinia vittigera); the Speckled Forest Skink
(Mabuya macularia); Many-lined or
Common Sun Skink (Mabuya multifasciata -
fig.); the Bowring's Supple
Skink (Riopa bowringii); and the Streamside (Forest)
Skink (Sphenomorphus maculatus), which is recognized by a dark flank
strike, and gets increasingly spotted with age, hence it is
also known as Spotted
Forest Skink (fig.);
and the Blotched Forest Skink (Sphenomorphus praesignis), which distribution in Thailand is limited to the
Though usually solitary, they can occasionally be encountered in small groups (fig.).
Like many other lizards, skinks have
the ability to detach their tails in order to avoid capture by predators (fig.).
The detached tail will
stay alive and kicking for a while; it
continues to move about and thus
distracts the predator's attention from the skink, allowing it to flee.
Over time, the tail will regenerate to its original shape. See also
jing lehn duang.
jing lehn duang (¨Ôé§àËÅ¹´éÇ§)
Generic term, i.e. a compound of the words
jing lehn and
duang, and used to refer
to any species of glass snake
or legless lizard. Despite these confusing common names,
this reptile is actually recognized as a
species of lizard rather than as a
jing rihd (¨Ôé§ËÃÕ´)
a grasshopper-like chirping insect in the family Gryllidae, with a flattened
body and long antennae (fig.) of which worldwide nearly a thousand species exist. Some
people, especially of Chinese origin, keep crickets as pets in small cages
(fig.). They are
considered to bring good luck and are liked for their chirping song, which in
some species is known to go up in rate as also temperatures rise, making it
possible to calculate the heat. In
China, crickets are kept for their song and for
companionship, and held in miniature, specially made cricket cages (fig.).
Those cages can be simple and made from bamboo, wood
or plastic (fig.),
but there are also elaborate cricket cages that are made from quality materials
and resemble small bird cages.
Inside, the owner will
place tiny vessels for food and water (fig.).
According to legend, the watch towers
in Beijing (fig.)
are designed after the intricate cricket cage of one of the senior
court eunuch-architects. In addition, crickets are used in fighting games
which is heavily bet, and the selling price for a good fighter can become quite
expensive. Fighting crickets are well looked after
and are generally kept in clay pots with a lid (fig.).
Those cricket pots are usually of a natural or grayish colour.
Beside this, crickets are an important food source for many
reptiles and birds, and are also consumed by some Thai people, especially in the
where they are eaten fried (fig.).
Also transcribed jing reed.
Jing Shang Bao Dian
Chinese. ‘Manage Business, Jade Advice’. Title of a consultative book
on success, written by Fan Li (范蠡), an ancient Chinese advisor in the
state of Yue in the Spring and Autumn Periods, who was also a successful and rich businessman,
managing a pharmacy that sold traditional
Chinese medicine. His book,
known in English as Golden Rules of Business Success, is considered
timeless and still widely available in places like Hong Kong and Singapore, both in
Chinese and in English. His advice includes 12 Golden Rules or business
principles and 12 Golden Safeguards or business pitfalls. The first
twelve are: be a good judge of character; be
customer-oriented; be single-minded; be captivating in your sales
promotion; be quick to respond; be vigilant in credit control; be
selective to recruit only the best; be bold in marketing your product;
be smart in product acquisition; be adept in analyzing market
opportunities; be a corporate model; and be farsighted in developing a
total business plan. The latter twelve
are: don't be stingy; don't be feeble in quality or character; don't be
ostentatious; don't be dishonest; don't be slow in debt collection;
don't slash prices randomly; don't give in to herd instinct; don't work
against the business cycle; don't be a unprogressive or old-fashioned;
don't overbuy on credit; don't under-save (keep reserve funds strong);
and don't blindly endorse a product.
jingtai lan (景泰蓝)
Chinese for ‘cloisonné’, i.e. metalwork
objects, usually artworks, decorated by an ancient technique
using an ornamental or preservative coating, such as enamel powder made into a
paste, often of
several colours, and that is inlayed in separate compartments
that are created with metal wire or thin strips of metal on the metal surface of the
object, which is next fired in a kiln. The term
from the French word cloison, which means ‘partition’
and refers to the in metal outlined compartments that are created on the
surface, which remain visible in the finished work and are an actual
characteristic of cloisonné. The
technique, which is equally referred to as cloisonné,
originally comes from the near East and later the West, from where it spread to
China in the 14th century. In contrast to the West, where it was in those days
mainly used for smaller objects, such as jewelry, it was in China soon used for
much larger objects, such as bowls and vases. Cloisonné remains common in China to the present day and has over time
developed into its own characteristic style, known as Chinese cloisonné.
Similar to cloisonné is
which in Thai is known as thong kham long yah (·Í§¤íÒÅ§ÂÒ).
minority group in
China, whose members live in Xishuangbanna, in
dwell in subtropical rainforest and most of them concentrate in a series of
hills, known as Jinoshan (基山), i.e. the
They have a total population of around 22,000 and as such are one of the less
numerous of the 56 officially recognized minorities in China. Their religion consists of a mixture of
besides one of the
languages or Chinese, many also speak their
own language, which is also called Jino, but which actually consists of two
languages, i.e. Youle and Buyuan.
2. Mutual name for two
oral languages, i.e. with no written form, spoken by the Jino people of
Yunnan, but which are
however not mutually intelligible. One is known as Youle and is spoken by about
10,000 people of the Jino minority, whereas the other is known as Buyuan and has
only about 1,000 speakers. Besides
this, most Jino people also speak one of the
languages or Chinese.
Jin Tong (金僮)
Chinese. ‘Golden Boy’. Name of an
immortal boy, who is an apprentice and assistant of the
Immortals. He has a female
counterpart, known as
Yu Nu, i.e. the ‘Jade Lady’ or ‘Jade Girl’ (fig.),
with whom he is often depicted together (fig.). In Thai, he is known as
addition to this and according to the Avatamsaka or ‘Flower Garland’
Sutra, Jin Tong was seeking
and became an acolyte of the goddess
Kuan Yin, the goddess of mercy. In this context, Jin Tong is called
Golden Boy and Jade Girl.
jin zhi (金纸)
Chinese. ‘Gold paper’. Name for sheets of
rice paper with a thin piece of square foil glued to its
and which sometimes is endorsed with a traditional Chinese red ink seal. They are used for
burning (fig.) in specially built ovens (fig.)
during certain traditional Chinese ceremonies, such as funerals. Prior to
burning they are sometimes folded into the shapes of flowers or other objects (fig.),
origami. There are
many different types for all kinds of functions, all with their own Chinese
designation, sometimes including other material things made of paper. Jin zhi can
also be translated as ‘money paper’ and as such it may include paper in the form
of fake banknotes, otherwise known as
ming bi, hell money. Before burning jin zhi the
person offering it will first make a vow called
in which the hands are brought
above the head, making a
English it is generally called
joss paper. In Thai transcribed gim jao. See also
Jiraprawat Woradet (¨ÔÃ»ÃÐÇÑµÔÇÃà´ª)
Thai. Name of the 8th son and 18th child of
He was born on 7 November 1876 and died on 4 February 1913. He was Minister of
War and an early supporter of aviation. During a tour to Europe in 1911 to
observe military affairs, he found advanced progress in aviation and realized
the importance and urgent necessity to employ airplanes for national defence and
security. On his return to
Siam, he convinced his half-brothers, Field Marshal
(fig.), of the idea to send Thai officers to Europe on aviation course, an initiative that materialized in 1912 and resulted in the formation
Department of Aviation under the
Ministry of Defence,
led to establishment of the Royal Thai Air
Force. His name is also transcribed Chirapravati Voradej.
jittrakon fah phanang (จิตรกรรมฝาผนัง)
Thai. ‘Mural’. A painting executed directly on a wall or ceiling. If such a painting is done in watercolour onto a fresh layer of lime plaster before it is dry, it is called a
the Italian word for ‘fresh’.
‘Alive’ or ‘Living’.
one of the eighteen
usually portrayed in a seating pose, with both his hands
pulling back the lapels of his garment, thus revealing his chest with a
Buddha image on it.
According to legend, he was the prince of a small
kingdom in India. When he became the next in line for the throne, his younger
brother contested him. Jivaka however, assured his
brother that he wanted to renounce the throne and become a monk instead, because
he only had Buddha in his heart. To authenticate his claim, he uncovered his
garments revealing the image of a Buddha on his chest. Upon seeing this, the younger brother ended
his opposition and Jivaka became a monk. It is
assumed by some that this monk was the learned doctor Shan Wu Wei, who in 716 AD,
in the reign of Emperor Hsuan-tsung of the Tang Dynasty (618-907 AD), arrived at Chang
An, coming to China from India. As such, his name perhaps refers to
Jivaka Komarabhacca (ªÕÇ¡
the most celebrated
doctor in India during the Buddha's time. He was born as the son of a courtesan
Rajagaha, who abandoned her baby near the palace gates. Prince
Abhaya, a son
of King Bimbisara, found the child and took it with him to be raised as his
adopted son. As a young adult he set out for Taxila to study medicine, returning
home after seven years, to serve as the doctor of King Bimbisara. He was hence
granted many gifts, including a mango grove, where on one occasion the Buddha
stayed with 1,250 monks. Later,
on Vulture's Rock,
Jivaka treated the
Buddha when he was injured by a stone splinter from a
huge stone hurled at him by
Devadatta, which struck another rock
and caused a splinter to wound his foot. He
thus became the Buddha's personal physician.
In Chinese he is called Kai Xin (开心, or traditional Chinese: 開心), literally
‘Open Heart’, but as a compound it can also be translated as ‘To Feel Happy’. In English he is referred to as the Heart Exposing
Arhat. Beside that, he
is sometimes called Gobaka, which in Sanskrit is akin to the name for the bird ardea govina, a kind of heron and a symbol of circumspection,
though some sources translate the name as a ‘man of heart’. In Thai his name can
be pronounced either Chiwaka or Chiwok.
Jiw Pae Thong (¨ÔÇá»êÐ·§)
Thai name for a figure with supernatural powers in the
Chinese martial arts story ‘The Legend of the Condor Heroes’, set in the Song
Dynasty (960-1279) and in Thai known as the ‘Jade
Yok). It was written by the novelist Jin
Yong (金庸), who in Thai is called Kim Yong (¡ÔÁÂé§) and in the West known as
Louis Cha. Jiw Pae Thong is the younger disciple brother of Wang Chong Yang
of the Quanzhen Sect and although he was one of the oldest characters in the
novel, he still behaved in a childish and mischievous manner like an immature
toddler, thus earning him his nickname Lao Wan Tong (老頑童), meaning the
‘Old Imp’ or ‘Old Urchin’. Despite their large difference in age, Zhou Bo Tong became
sworn brothers with Guo Jing and even taught him martial arts. He was by far the
most powerful martial artist alive after the death of Wang Chong Yang. In
Chinese Jiw Pae Thong is called
Zhou Bo Tong.
ji xiang shou
‘Lucky, auspicious quadrupeds’ or
propitious beasts’. A name for
Chinese Imperial roof decoration.
Thai. Short for
Jo Cho (â¨â©)
Thai name for the shifty general in the Chinese story of the
In Chinese he is referred to as Cáo Cāo (曹操).
He was known for his craftiness and his name Cāo could be translated as ‘to grasp’, ‘to
control’, ‘to steer’ or ‘to manage’.
Thai. ‘Water lettuce’. Name for a
free-floating aquatic plant of the genus Pistia, with just one single species,
which is known by the botanical name Pistia stratiotes. It is a perennial plant with thick, soft, light green
leaves, with a length of up to 15 cm and which are covered in short,
water-repellent hairs. In water, these wedge-shaped leaves
leaves, which form a rosette-shaped, funnel-like
structure, trap air bubbles, increasing the plant's buoyancy and allowing small
birds to walk over a carpet of them. Due to its cabbage-like shape it is also
called water cabbage. Thai pronunciation jauk and sometimes transcribed jawk.
Thai. ‘Duckweed’. Name for a very small
free-floating plant of the genus Lemna which grows in dense colonies on the
surface of still water. Its Latin name Lemna is derived from the Greek word limne, meaning ‘stagnant pool’. There are several species but the Thai name usually
refers to common or lesser duckweed (Lemna minor), a tiny seed bearing aquatic
plant with a submersed multiple root structure. It's natural habitat is in fresh
water ponds, streams and marshes. Rich in protein and fats many kinds of ducks
consume duckweed and often transport it to other bodies of water, hence its
English name. Thai pronunciation jauk haen and sometimes transcribed jawk haen.
A character from the Javanese-Thai story
(fig.), who fell passionately in love
and helped defend her father's city, Krung Daha.
1. Thai for
also known as
jorakae thong leuang. Thailand
is home to three different species, i.e. the
Siamese Crocodile (Crocodylus
siamensis), in Thai known as jorakae beung (¨ÃÐà¢éºÖ§), jorakae nahm jeud (¨ÃÐà¢é¹íéÒ¨×´)
Sayaam (¨ÃÐà¢éÊÂÒÁ); the
Large Saltwater or Estuarine Crocodile (Crocodylus porosus -
fig.), in Thai called
jorakae ahy kiam (¨ÃÐà¢éÍéÒÂà¤ÕèÂÁ) or jorakae nahm khem (¨ÃÐà¢é¹íéÒà¤çÁ); and
the False Gharial (Tomistoma schlegelii) with its characteristic thin and
elongated snout (fig.), also known as the Malayan
Crocodile, Malayan Gharial or False Gavial (fig.), and in Thai named jorakae pahk kratung hew (¨ÃÐà¢é»Ò¡¡ÃÐ·Ø§àËÇ)
or takohng (µÐâ¢§). Nowadays crocodiles in Thailand no
longer occur in the wild, but are bred for their hide
and meat (fig.) in special nurseries, called
The meat is frozen and exported, or used in local cuisine (fig.),
whilst the hide is used to produce crocodile leather
products (fig.). In South Asia however, there are still crocodiles found in the wild. Throughout
the Indian subcontinent and the surrounding
countries, there are wild Marsh Crocodiles (Crocodylus palustris -
fig.), as well as
Indian Gharials, also known as Indian Gavials (Gavialis
fig.), and Saltwater
Crocodiles. Marsh Crocodiles (fig.) are also referred to as Muggers or Mugger
Crocodiles (fig.), a term that
derives from the Urdu word magar and means ‘water monster’, whereas gharials get
their name from the Hindi word ghara (घड़ा), i.e. a clay
pot to cool drinking water, which resembles the bulbous growth on the nose of
adult males. Being reptiles, crocodiles lay tough-shelled amniotic eggs (fig.).
It has recently been discovered that crocodiles can sleep with one eye open,
shutting down just half of their brains, keeping the other half active. The
makara is sometimes
portrayed as a crocodile (fig.).
See also WILDLIFE PICTURES (1)
Vahana or mount of the Vedic god
jorakae thong leuang (จระเข้ท้องเหลือง)
with a yellow belly’. Nickname for any of the crocodiles endemic to
except for the
Malayan fish crocodile, a kind of alligator, which
is known in Thai as
jorakae tihn pet
jorakae tihn pet (จระเข้ตีนเป็ด)
Thai. ‘Duck feet
crocodile’. Nickname for
Malayan fish crocodile, a kind of alligator
(fig.). See also
jorakae thong leuang.
for a striking spider in the family Nephilidae, with the scientific Latin
designations Nephila clavata, Nephila limbata, and Nephila obnubila, amongst
others. It is found in Japan, Korea, Taiwan, and China.
Whilst the body size of the female is around 2.5 centimeters, that of the male
is no more than about 1 centimeter. It
black legs with yellow bands and a yellow body decorated with bluish-grey
horizontal bars and spots, and some red colouring towards the rear of the
abdomen, as well as two bright yellow
spots at the rear edge of the upper body.
Males are similar to females, but their yellow bodies have dark and vertical
markings, as well as a series
of bluish-grey spots at the
rear edge of the body (fig.).
The yellow threads of this species' web appear gold in the sunlight and in
autumn, the smaller male joins the female in her web in order to copulate. After
mating the female spins an egg sack with up to 1,500 eggs. The life cycle of the
Joro Spider ends by late autumn or in early winter. This spider is similar in
appearance to the
Batik Golden Web
Golden Orb-web Spider
Chinese Pidgin English. Term that refers to
a Chinese ‘idol’ or ‘deity’. It is derived from the Javanese word dejos which itself comes from the
Portuguese word deus, meaning ‘god’. Colloquially it came to mean ‘luck’.
Name for a kind of cored
a small wooden stick coated
with a thick layer of
that burns away together with
Joss sticks are burned in a special vessel called a
in Thai, but are usually discarded before being burned up completely
If not, they are sometimes left and piled up on top of each other to form a
tower of sticks (fig.).
Before burning joss sticks the person offering them will first perform an
Thai. Southern Thai name for the
Arabic. ‘Garment’. Term for a type of long loose shirt
with wide sleeves, worn by Muslim boys and men,
especially in India and that –except for the hands and face– covers the body
well below knee-length. It
is commonly worn over a loose pair
of trousers, usually of the same colour, as well as with a hat called a
similar to the
of a greedy old
Thai. ‘Tuft’. The growing of a
topknot or tuft of hair on a child's head (fig.), with the rest of the head shaven bald, is based on a centuries old superstition and is to prevent children from becoming chronically ill. The juk is cut off during a traditional tonsure ceremony called
Pittih Kohnjuk, when the child is older.
Hill tribe children often have their heads shaved leaving a small lock of hair in front (fig.).
The custom can
be traced back to the
small tuft of hair
the back of their heads (fig.), in the
of drops’), a
part where it is believed that a fluid is produced which can become either
Elixir of Immortality,
or the poison of death.
and compare with the
Brahmin priests and novices (fig.).
Name of the era officially in use before the introduction of
the Buddhist Era (BE).
It began on 21 March 638 A.D.
Name for a species of babbler, with the scientific
designation Turdoides striata and found in South Asia. It is a common resident
breeding bird in most parts of the Indian Subcontinent, and although several
members in the Timaliidae family are found
in Thailand, this species is not. In India, these birds are nicknamed Seven
Sisters, as they often appear in groups of seven.
See also WILDLIFE PICTURES.
Common name for a species of butterfly, with the scientific
designation Orsotrioena medus, and also commonly referred to a Nigger. Whilst
the upper-side of the wings of the Jungle Brown is plain, dark brown, without
markings, the underside has two ocelli, as well as a typifying whitish marginal
line on both the fore- and
hind-wings. Whereas the white line remains in the dry
season, the ocelli degenerate to mere spots, and some individuals may have an
additional third eyespot,
which is smaller in size and located near one of the two ocelli on the
hind-wing. This species of butterfly is widespread throughout Asia and prefers
to dwell in shady forest, both wet and dry.
Name for a species of wild cat, with the scientific name
Felis chaus fulvidina, and which is found in mainland Southeast Asia, including
Malaysia. Despite its name it
lives in open grasslands, scrub and deciduous forests, as well as along streams.
It is slightly larger than domestic cats, with males
a bit larger than females. It has a relatively long legs and a short tail. Its
fur is plain ashy grey to yellowish-brown, with brown stripes on the legs and
tail, and whitish pale around the snout. Though not closely related to the
lynxes, the Jungle Cat is also known
as Swamp Lynx, which is due to the fact that the tips
of its ears, like lynxes, also have black tufts.
In Thai it is called maew pah (áÁÇ»èÒ) or (เสือกระต่าย),
meaning ‘jungle cat’ or ‘wild cat’, and ‘rabbit tiger’,
See also POSTAGE STAMPS.
Name of a widespread Asian species of crow with the scientific
designation Corvus macrorhynchos, which occurs throughout
South, East and Southeast Asia. It has a noticeable large bill and is therefore also known by the names Large-billed Crow and Thick-billed Crow.
It has an all-black colouration with a minor bluish shine on its plumage and grows to well over 50
centimeters in size, with the Himalayan race being the largest subspecies,
growing up to 59 centimeters (fig.). Jungle Crows live in a broad range of habitats, from woodlands
mangrove forests to open country and
cities, where they benefit from human presence, but are often considered a
nuisance. They are very adaptable and feed on a wide range of food sources,
including other birds which they hunt and kill (fig.).
Their call is a low-pitched ‘kah’, what led to their Thai name,
nok kah and which translates as ‘crow’, though it is also known as nok
ih-kah. In mythology
it is referred to in the story of
Kaaknasoon, a female giant belonging to the
Totsakan, who changed herself into a large crow (fig.),
and crows also appear in the story of
Common name for a species of starling, with the scientific
designation Acridotheres fuscus and is a common resident in tropical southern
Asia and southeastern Asia. It is about 23 centimeters tall and has a grey
plumage, blackish head, wings and upper-tail. The under-tail is white, and in
flight, the underwings display large white patches. Like the
White-vented Myna (fig.),
it has a crest on the forehead, but a much smaller one, and the bill and legs
are yellowish-orange, as are the irises, though the southern Indian race has a
blue irises. The sexes are similar, but juveniles are brownish. It is somewhat
similar to the
Bank Myna (fig.),
but lacks the bare eye-patches. In Thai, it is known as
nok ihyang kwai, i.e.
myna’, due to its tendency to perch on the back of
buffaloes, a habit also ascribed to the White-vented Myna
Compare also with the
Common Myna (fig.).
See also WILDLIFE PICTURES.
name for a species of butterfly found in South and Southeast Asia, with the