CONSONANTS | VOWELS | CLUSTERS | NUMERALS | PECULIARITIES | THAI | LAO | KHMER | CHINESE | BURM.

DEVANAGARI SCRIPT 

       

 

देवनागरी

Introduction

This section is intended as a reference and aid to help recognize and determine the transcription of the Devanagari script used in the lexicon to write words in Sanskrit, Pali and Hindi. Its script is recognizable by a distinctive horizontal line that runs along the top of the letters, linking them together. It is written from left to right using an abugida writing system, in which each letter represents a consonant that carries the inherent vowel ‘a’, similar to the ‘silent vowels’ of the Thai alphabet, whilst all other vowels, or the absence thereof, require either modification of these consonants, or they have their own symbol.

The first transcription of the consonants is inclusive of the inherent vowel ‘a’, whereas the second one shows how it is pronounced with a killer stroke, a sign that silences the inherent vowel at the end of a word or syllable. Vowels exist in an independent form as well as in a diacritic form. Behind each vowel, in between brackets, its diacritic form is given. Most of the consonants have a vertical right stroke which disappears if a consonant is the first letter of a consonant cluster. Besides a couple of examples our list only shows clusters that are either not subject to this rule, don't have a vertical right stroke, follow different rules or have specialties. See also comparative language list.

Consonants

  • ..... ka - k
  • ..... kha - kh
  • ..... ga - g
  • ..... gha - gh
  • ..... ca - c (ts)
  • ..... cha - ch (tsh)
  • ..... ja - j (dzj)
  • ..... jha - jh (dzj)
  • ..... a -
  • ..... ha - h
  • ..... ta - t
  • ..... tha - t
  • ..... a -
  • ..... ha - h
  • ..... da - d
  • ..... dha - dh
  • ..... ba - b
  • ..... bha - bh
  • ..... pa - p
  • ..... pha - ph
  • ..... nga - ng (ŋ/)
  • ..... na - n (ɲ)
  • ..... na - n (ɳ/ṇ)
  • ..... na - n
  • ..... ma - m
  • ..... ya - y (j)
  • ..... ra - r
  • ..... la - l
  • ..... va - v
  • ..... sha - s (ś/ʃ)
  • ..... sa - s (ṣ/ʂ)
  • ..... sa - s
  • ..... ha - h

Vowels

  • (-) ..... a
  • (ा) ..... aa (ah/ā)
  • (ो) ..... oo (oh/ō)
  • (ौ) ..... au
  • (ि) ..... i
  • (ी) ..... ie (ih/ī)
  • (ु) ..... u (oe)
  • (ू) ..... uu (oeh/ū)
  • (े) ..... e (ē)
  • (ै) ..... ai (ay)
Specific to Sanskrit only:
  • (ृ) ..... ṛ
  • (ॄ) .....
  • (ॢ) .....
  • (ॣ) .....

Clusters

Most of the consonants have a vertical right stroke, which disappears if a consonant is used as the first letter of a consonant cluster, e.g.:

  • क्क (क+क) ..... kk
  • ख्य (ख+य) ..... khy
  • ग्म (+म) ..... gm
  • etc.

The letter ‘r’ has no vertical right stroke and when being used as the first letter when forming a cluster, it always gets a ‘c’ sign on top of the horizontal line of the latter consonant, e.g.:

  • र्क (+) ..... rk
  • र्म (+) ..... rm
  • etc.

When the letter ‘r’ is the second letter of a consonant cluster, it is in most cases indicated by a slant stroke at the bottom of the left side on the vertical right stroke of the first consonant, if there is one available, e.g.:

  • क्र (क+र)..... kr
  • ज्र (+) ..... jr
  • ध्र (ध+र) ..... dhr
  • स्र (+) ..... sr
  • etc.

However, some consonant clusters are not subject to this rule, perhaps because the first consonant doesn't have a vertical right stroke, they follow different rules, or are simply exceptional, i.e.:

  • क्त (क+त) ..... kt
  • क्ष (क+ष) ..... k
  • ग्र (+र) ..... gr
  • ज्ञ (+) ..... jng
  • ड्र (+) ..... r
  • त्त (+) ..... tt
  • त्न (+) ..... tn
  • त्र (+) ..... tr
  • द्ग (द+ग) ..... dg
  • द्घ (द+घ) ..... dgh
  • द्द (द+द) ..... dd
  • द्ध (द+ध) ..... ddh
  • द्न (द+न) ..... dn
  • द्ब (द+ब) ..... db
  • द्भ (द+भ) ..... dbh
  • द्म (द+म) ..... dm
  • द्य (द+य) ..... dy
  • द्र (द+र) ..... dr
  • द्व (द+व) ..... dv
  • प्त (+) ..... pt
  • श्च (+) ..... śc
  • श्न (+) ..... śn
  • श्र (+) ..... śr
  • श्ल (+) ..... śl
  • श्व (+) ..... śv
  • ष्ट (+)  .....
  • ष्ठ (+)  ..... h
  • ह्ण (+) ..... h
  • ह्न (+) ..... hn
  • ह्म (+) ..... hm
  • ह्य (+) ..... hy
  • ह्र (+) ..... hr
  • ह्व (+) ..... hv

Numerals

 

..... 1

..... 2

..... 3

..... 4

..... 5

..... 6

..... 7

..... 8

..... 9

..... 0

 

 

Peculiarities

  • nasalizes sound, e.g. अं ..... , am
  • nasalizes sound, e.g. ॐ ..... aum (=  ओ+ँ) or साँची ....Sanchi
  • ़ softens sound, e.g. फ़ (+़) ..... fa - f
  • silences sound, e.g. अमित्र् ..... amitr (versus अमित्र  - amitra)
  • allophone, e.g. अः ..... aḥ